ديسمبر 31, 2016

أجرى العلماء أول تجربة للقاح خاص بالسرطان.




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لقد خطا العلماء خطوة إيجابية متطورة فقد قاموا بتجربة أول لقاح عالمي للسرطان.
وهذا اللقاح يُعطى للمصابين بالسرطان وليس فقط للوقاية من هذا المرض.
النتائج الأولية التي اجريت على الإنسان بالإضافة إلى تلك التي أجريت على الفئران، بدأ العلماء بنشرها وهم يشيرون إلى أن هذهالتقنية تساعد على تنشيط الأجهزة المناعية ضد أي نوع من الورم وأينما تواجد في الجسم .
وعلى عكس اللقاحات التي اعتدنا عليها، هذا اللقاح القوي يُعطى للمرضى المصابين بالسرطان . وهو يعمل على إطلاق سهام صغيرة تحتوي على قطع من خلاصة ال RNA المأخوذة من الخلايا السرطانية للمريض، دورها أن تدفع مناعة المريض نفسه إلىإطلاق هجوم كاسح على أي ورم تمر به.
“تشير النظرية إلى أنه بمجرد تغيير ال RNA داخل هذه السهام ، تستطيع المناعة التحرك ضد أي نوع من السرطان. إن أنواعاً كهذه من اللقاحات سريعة ولا تحتاج حتى يتم إنتاجها إلى كلفة عالية. “هذا ما ذكره الباحثون من جامعة Johannes Gutenberg University في مانيز في ألمانيا، في مجلة Nature.

وبناء عليه يعتبر العلاج بجسيمية النانو، الذي عرّفناه هنا بالعلاج المناعي RNA، لقاحاً قابلاً للاستعمال ضد السرطان.


العلاج المناعي الذي يدخل فيه جهاز مناعة الشخص نفسه في الهجوم على السرطان، ليس بعلاج جديد فالباحثون استعملوا هذه التقنية لمحاربة أنواع مختلفة من السرطان وجاءت نتائجها عظيمة.
ولكن حتى اليوم تم تنفيذ ذلك فقط عبر الهندسة الجينية الخاصة التي عملت على استهداف الخلايا السرطانية في المختبر ومن ثم حقن المريض بها ولكن هذه الطريقة عملية مكلفة للمال كما أنها هدر للوقت.

أما هذه الطريقة اي اللقاح فهو مصنوع في المختبر ويُقدم الحمض النووي السرطاني إلى خلايا المناعة في الجسم وبناء عليه تعتبر هذه الطريقة أقل عدوانية كما أنها طريقة لاصطياد أنواع متنوعة من السرطان.

إذن لماذا لا تُخرج المناعة بشكل طبيعي هذه الأنواع من السرطانات؟

“أحد الأسباب هو أن الخلية السرطانية تشبه إلى حد كبير الخلية الطبيعية والجهاز المناعي عادة يتجنب مهاجمة نفسه” هذا ما شرحه الاختصاصيان بالعلاج المناعي جولاندا دي فريس وفيغدور في التقرير الذي نشرته مجلة Nature . وذلك يعني أنك عندما ستطوراللقاح ستحتاج إلى استعمال مولد مضاد(أي جزيء غريب يعمل كمحفز للجهاز المناعي. وهو شيء لا يتواجد على الخلايا العادية) ”

” إن ردود الفعل المناعية المتواضعة نسبياً تحدث عند أخذ لقاح يحتوي على مولدات المضاد التي تظهر على الأنسجة الصحية “.هذا ما كتبه فريس وكارل فيغدور .” ردود الفعل المناعية القوية لا يمكن توقعها إلا عندما تظهر مولدات المضاد على الخلاياالسرطانية وهذه المولدات لا تظهر عادة على خلايا الراشد الطبيعية “.

لقد صُمّم هذا اللقاح لنقل هذا النوع من مولد المضاد الخاص بالسرطان إلى الجهاز المناعي. وهو يعمل عبر تغليف RNAالسرطان بغشاء دهني بسيط، معطياً إياه شحنة سلبية قليلاً.

هذا يعني أنه حالما يحقن المريض باللقاح ، يدخل اللقاح عبر شحنة كهربائية نحو الخلايا المناعية المتشجرة الموجودة في الطحال والعقد اللنفاوية ونقي العظم.
ومن ثم “تكشف” هذه الخلايا المتشجرة، RNA السرطان إلى الخلايا T . وعندئذ تخرج الخلايا T وتقوم بقتل كل الخلايا السرطانية في الجسم.

والواقع أن هذا ما برهنه الفريق الألماني الذي أجرى البحث على الفئران. حالما يتم الحقن باللقاح، يصبح جهاز المناعة قادراً على محاربة الأورام النامية بشراسة .

مما لا شك فيه أن عدداً كبيراً من النتائج التي تظهر على الفئران قد لا تترجم بالضرورة على الإنسان لذا لا يمكننا أن نتحمس كثيراً.

لقد قام فريق الأبحاث الألماني بتجربة اللقاح على 3 مرضى مصابين بسرطان الجلد . كان الغرض من التجربة هو اختبار ما إذا كان اللقاح آمناً لتطبيقه على البشر فجاءت النتائج واعدة. فالآثار السلبية كانت محدودة وشبيهة بعوارض الكريب وهذه العوارض أخف من معظم العلاجات الكيميائية.

ينتظر فريق الأبحاث مدة 12 شهراً لمتابعة نتائج هذه التجربة الآمنة. وإن جرى كل شيء على ما يرام ، سيبدأ العمل على تجربة أوسع للاطلاع على كيفية عمل اللقاح.

” عبر الجمع ما بين الدراسات المخبرية وما بين التجربة السريرية ، يُظهر هذا البحث نوعاً جديداً من اللقاحات العلاجية التي استعملت لمعالجة مرضى مصابين بسرطان الجلد”. يقول رئيس قسم الأبحاث السرطانية في بريطانيا :
” لأن اللقاح لم يتم اختباره إلا على 3 مرضى، لا بد من من إجراء الاختبار على مجموعة أكبر للتأكد من أنه آمن كما لا بد من إجراء المزيد من الأبحاث لتحديد ما إذا كان هذا اللقاح قادراً حقاً على معالجة أنواع أخرى من السرطان”

مع ان الوقت ما يزال مبكراً جداً ، إلا أننا نعقد الأمل على نجاح هذا اللقاح المعالج للسرطان.

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